1849

The Game of Sicilian Railways

r6h

Version 4.16

30th November 1998


1849 Credits

Author:
Federico Vellani.
Development team:
many players from the F.I.G.F., the Italian Federation of Railway Gaming.
Special thanks to:
Ester Bonilauri;
David G.D. Hecht.
Original 18XX game system:
Francis Tresham.
Bibliography (books):
Storia delle Ferrovie in Italia vol. I-II-III (I. Briano, Cavallotti Editori, 1977);
La rete FS a scartamento ridotto della Sicilia (N. Molino, Elledi, 1985);
Locomotive a vapore FS (G. Cornol˛, Albertelli, 1989).
Bibliography (games):
1826 (D. Hecht, 1996-97);
1827 (F. Vellani, 1994-96);
1827 Jr. (F. Vellani, 1995-96);
1829 (F. Tresham, Hartland Trefoil, 1982);
1830 (F. Tresham - B. Shelley, The Avalon Hill Game Company, 1986);
1835 (M. Meier-Bachl - F. Tresham, Hans-im-Gluck, 1990);
1841 (F. Vellani - M. Manzini, 1991-95);
1853 (F. Tresham, Hartland Trefoil, 1989);
1870 (B. Dixon - D.P. Bromley - P.Y. Bromley, Mayfair Games, 1992-95).

This game has been proudly produced in the Italian Republic, A.D. 1992-97
Current gamekit edition produced by Chris Lawson, England 1998


1849 - Table of contents

  
1849 Credits4Operating Round
1849 Table of contents4.1Track Laying step
1849 Rules of play4.2Token Laying step
1Introduction4.3Trains Running step
1.1Game Description4.3.1Routes Selecting substep
1.2Game Scenarios4.3.2Revenue substep
1.3Basic and Advanced Game4.4Token Acquiring step
1.3.1Electric Dreams variant4.5E Token Acquiring step
1.4Preparing for Play4.6Train Acquiring step
2Starting Round4.6.1Emergency Money Raising substep
2.1Seat Assignment step4.6.2Train Purchasing substep
2.2Initial Money Assignment step4.6.3Game Phase Change step
2.3Corporation Sorting step4.6.3.1Messina Earthquake
2.4Private Companies Assignment step4.6.3.2General Notes
2.4.1Initial Purchase of Private Companies4.6.4Train Acquiring step ending
2.4.2Making a Bid for a Private Company4.7Financial Activities step
2.4.3Private Companies Assignment example4.7.1Corporate Stock Selling substep
2.4.4Failure to Sell Private Companies4.7.2Corporate Stock Buying substep
2.4.5Reale SocietÓ d'Affari4.7.3Bond Interests Payment substep
3Stock Round4.7.4Bond Repayment substep
3.1Players' Stock Selling step4.7.5Bond Issuing substep
3.2Players' Stock Buying step4.8Private Company Acquiring
3.3Corporation Starting step5Standings Round
3.3.1Initial Market Value Fixing substep6Glossary
3.3.2Initial Emission substep7Electric Dreams Variant
3.3.3Tokens Acquiring substep 
3.3.4Corporation Starting example1849 Appendices
3.4Stock Round Ending step1Tiles available
3.5Stock General Notes1.1Yellow tiles
3.5.1Stock Valuation and the Stock Market1.2Green tiles
3.5.2Limit of Stock Holding1.3Brown tiles
3.5.3Change of President 
3.5.4Double Last Certificate1849 Sequence of Play

1849 - Rules of play

1 - Introduction

Around the middle of the 19th century at least three groups of English businessmen requested permission to build a series of railroads in Sicily, in order to exploit the vast resources of the interior. King Ferdinand of the Two Sicilies rejected them owing to a misplaced nationalistic pride, and this wonderful but unlucky land lost an unrepeatable opportunity. Sicily obtained its first railway only in 1863, three years after the Italian Reunification.

1.1 - Game Description

1849 is a railroad game set in Sicily from 1849 to 1922. The players take on the role of railroad investors, promoters and Presidents with the general objective of making money. Their methods may reflect a greater or lesser degree of public responsibility depending on their personal inclinations.

A player's wealth is accumulated mainly through owning shares of Stock in the several Railroad Corporations included in the game. Stock shares make money in two ways: they can provide ready cash via dividend payments and they can increase in value. The single largest Stockholder in a Corporation becomes its President and operates the Corporation, ideally, but not necessarily, for the benefit of all Stockholders.

The play of 1849 is composed of an initial routine (Starting Round), a certain number of Game Turns (each composed of a Stock Round and one to three Operating Rounds), and a final routine (Standings Round).

In the Starting Round the players receive their initial positions; in a Stock Round they have the opportunity to buy and sell Stock in Corporations; in an Operating Round they perform the various functions concerned with running a Corporation; in the Standings Round they determine the final standings.

The game ends when either:

The winner is the wealthiest player at the end of the game. A player's wealth is made up of his / her personal cash and his / her Stock Certificates - at current market values (Corporation assets, whether funds, Stock, or trains, are not counted in the total).

 Scenario 5Scenario 6
Number of players3-44-5
Best number of players34
Number of Corporations56
Number of Stock
Certificates in play
4048

1.2 - Game Scenarios

1849 includes two different scenarios, one of which has to be selected before the beginning of the game depending on the number of players. The differences between the two scenarios are the number of Trains and Corporations used (five in scenario 5 and six in scenario 6).

1.3 - Basic and Advanced Game

Some rules are marked with an "Advanced Game only" label, and should be used only after having mastered the basic ones by players wanting a deeper, longer, and slightly more complicated game(1).

1.3.1 - Electric Dreams variant

This variant to the Advanced Game can be used only if all players agree. If not used the E Tokens and the E Trains are ignored. See also Rule 7.

1.4 - Preparing for Play

Lay out the board and place all the money in the Bank and the five Private Companies on the board.

NoteNumber
Available
L. 130
L. 230
L. 530
L. 1030
L. 2030
L. 5030
L. 10030
L. 20012

222 banknotes for a total of L. 8,040 are included with the game, distributed as shown in the table on the right. Only L. 7,760 are required so remove L. 280 before the start.

The train cards should be sorted by class and laid out on the Train Chart located on the map board. Start with the R6H cards on the right and then place each card on top and to the left of the previous card, this will allow players to see the cost and how many are left of each class during the game. Please note that some train cards are not used in Scenario 5. E Trains and Tokens are only used in the Electric Dreams variant.

The track tiles must also be laid out so as to be available for inspection and use. Only the yellow tiles are needed at first, but the others are relevant to planning for the later stages of the game and should be available for inspection.

The Corporation Charters can be placed beside the map board and the Stock Certificates are placed on the appropriate locations on the map board, with the President's Certificate on top and the Last Certificate at the bottom in each case.

Play may now commence.

2 - Starting Round

2.1 - Seat Assignment step

Old hands note: this rule works exactly like the 1830 one.
The appropriate number of Place Cards (three to five) are shuffled and distributed randomly, one to each player. The players then take their seats in clockwise order, and the task of managing the bank should be divided between the first and the last player, with the Bank put in a position between the two.

Number of
Players
Money Assigned
To Each Player
3L. 500
4L. 375
5L. 300

2.2 - Initial Money Assignment step

The initial money (L. 1,500) is equally divided between the players, in the amounts shown in the table on the right.

2.3 - Corporation Sorting step

All six Place Cards are now shuffled again and dealt out face down, one to each stack of Stock Certificates, onto the President Certificates. Once each stack has a Place Card, they are turned face up as this will determine the order which Corporations become available (as a Presidential Certificate cannot be bought if the Presidential Certificate previous to it has not been sold(2)). In Scenario 5, one Corporation (which had the '6' Place Card dealt to it) is not required and therefore not used for any reason, the scenario is played with five Corporations only(3).

2.4 - Private Companies Assignment step

Old hands note: aside the special property of each Private Company, this rule works exactly like the 1830 one.
The Banker(4) begins the game by offering for sale, one at a time and in order of increasing value, the Private Companies available at the start of the game. He / she starts with the player who drew the lowest number Place Card (this could be himself / herself) and offers him / her the first company, the S.C.E. - SocietÓ Corriere Etnee, using the procedure given in Rule 2.4.1. If player #1 buys the S.C.E., the S.I.G.I. - Studio di Ingegneria Giuseppe Incorpora is then offered to the next player and so on in clockwise rotation. If player #1 passes the opportunity to buy the S.C.E., it is offered to player #2, and so on.

Only after all the Private Companies have been bought may the Banker begin selling stock in the Corporations. When buying stops, the player on the left of the last person to buy is given the Priority Deal card.

NameHandleCostRev.Notes
SocietÓ Corriere EtneeS.C.E.L. 20L. 5 A Corporation cannot build track in the Acireale hex until this Company is either eliminated or bought by any Corporation(5).
Studio di Ingegneria Giuseppe IncorporaS.I.G.I.L. 45L. 10 The owning Corporation can lay or upgrade standard gauge track at half cost on Mountain, Hill or Rough hexes. Narrow gauge track is still at normal cost.
Compagnia Navale MediterraneaC.N.M.L. 75L. 15 The owning Corporation can place the +L. 20 token on any port. This action closes the Company but the Corporation adds L. 20 to the revenue of the port until the end of the game(6).
SocietÓ Marittima SicilianaS.M.S.L. 110L. 20 The owning Corporation can place a tile and a token on a coastal city, even if that city is not connected to one of its railheads, subject to all other limitations described on rule 4.2. This action closes the Company, and is made instead of the regular Track Laying and Token Laying Steps(7).
Reale SocietÓ d'AffariR.S.A.L. 150L. 25See Rule 2.4.5.

2.4.1 - Initial Purchase of Private Companies

Old hands note: this rule works exactly like the 1830 one.
While at least one Private Company remains unsold a player must, in his / her turn, do one of the following:

2.4.2 - Making a Bid for a Private Company

Old hands note: this rule works exactly like the 1830 one.
A bid for a Private Company not yet offered for sale must exceed the face value of the company (or of any other bid already made for it) by at least L. 5. The player must place the bid money in front of him / her on the table and not use it for any other purpose until ownership of the company is resolved. Any number of players may bid for the same company. A player gains no benefit from bidding twice for the same company. A Company that has been bid on is not offered for sale in the usual way. Instead, once the company preceding it has been sold, the normal procedure stops. If only one bid has been received, the Private Company is sold to the player concerned for the amount bid. If several bids have been made an auction is held in which all bidders (but no one else) take part. The starting price for the auction is the highest sum bid, and the minimum raise is L. 5. A player purchasing a company by auction may use the money he / she has already staked in the original bid to make the purchase. Unsuccessful bidders are now free to use the money they set aside as their bid. Play then resumes with the player to the left of the last player to buy a company offered by the Banker.

2.4.3 - Private Companies Assignment example

The following sequence can happen in a four-player game:
The S.C.E. is offered for L. 20: The S.I.G.I. is offered for L. 45: This halts the normal turns of the round and triggers the following chain of events: Regardless of who wins the auction, when the S.M.S. is finally sold the round returns to its normal sequence. The R.S.A. is offered to player #2 for its face value of L. 150.

2.4.4 - Failure to Sell Private Companies

Old hands note: this rule works exactly like the 1830 one.
If a complete Stock Round fails to sell the S.C.E., then another Stock Round begins immediately. The S.C.E. is offered again but for L. 5 less than face value. This procedure may be repeated if necessary, the price being reduced in L. 5 decrements until a buyer is found. If there is no buyer at L. 5, then the first player offered it at L. 5 must accept it now for free. This counts as a purchase. If any other Private Company fails to find a buyer after a complete Round, the Starting Round ends in the usual way and revenue is paid to each Private Company that has been bought. Another Starting Round then begins. This situation may continue for several Rounds to the great delight of those who are making money out of it!

2.4.5 - Reale SocietÓ d'Affari

When a player buys the R.S.A., he / she then: The R.S.A. is eliminated when the Corporation buys its first train(8).

3 - Stock Round

During this activity each player, starting with the Priority Deal Cardholder, can perform a Selling step followed by either a Buying step or a Corporation Starting step(9).

When he / she has finished play then proceeds to the next player on his / her left until all players have passed consecutively, when the Stock Round ends with a Stock Round Ending step.

Please note that:

When everyone has stopped trading the player on the left of the last player to buy or sell is given the Priority Deal card. This signifies that he / she will have the first opportunity to operate in the next Stock Round.

If no deals take place during a Stock Round, the holding player retains the Priority Deal card.

3.1 - Players' Stock Selling step

(From the second Stock Round onwards)
During this step a player can either: In order to sell one or more Stock Certificates the player has to perform the following activities: A player cannot sell a Certificate of a Corporation if: Please note that:

3.2 - Players' Stock Buying step

During this step a player can either: A player cannot buy a Certificate if:

3.3 - Corporation Starting step

To start a new Corporation a player has to take its Corporation Charter and then perform the substeps described in the following paragraphs.

The player cannot choose the Corporation of his / her choice: he / she always gets the next available Corporation (i.e. the Presidential Certificate with the lowest Place Card).

In the game the following 6 Corporations are included:

HandleNameNicknameBaseToken Fee
A.F.G.Azienda Ferroviaria GaribaldiGaribaldiSee Rule 3.3.3L. 40
A.T.A.Azienda Trasporti ArchimedeArchimedeSiracusaL. 30
C.T.L.Compagnia Trasporti LilibeoLilibeoMarsalaL. 40
I.F.T.Impresa Ferroviaria TrinacriaTrinacriaCataniaL. 90
R.C.S.Rete Centrale SiculaSiculaPalermoL. 130
S.F.A.SocietÓ Ferroviaria AkragasAkragasGirgentiL. 40

3.3.1 - Initial Market Value Fixing substep

The President sets the initial market value of a Stock Certificate. This value can be fixed either at L. 68, L. 100, L. 144 (from Phase Six), or L. 216 (from Phase Ten). After choosing the initial market value, the President puts the Stock Market token in the appropriate position on the Stock Market Chart.

3.3.2 - Initial Emission substep

The President now must buy the President's Certificate and zero, one or two regular Certificates (up to the 40% of the Corporation), and pays the correct amount of money into the Corporation Treasury. Any player (President included) can buy the other Certificates at current market value during their regular Buying step, with the money going to the Corporation Treasury. Corporate Stock cannot be sold until the Corporation has performed at least one Operating Round.

The player remains President as long as no other player accumulates a larger holding of Stock in that Corporation.

3.3.3 - Tokens Acquiring substep

The Corporation now buys its three tokens with its corporate money (the fee varies from L. 30 to L. 130 depending on the Corporation, see the table above). The Corporation then puts one token on a vacant station space on its base city.

The Garibaldi can choose as its base station any vacant station space on every city on the map which does not already contain a base station of one of the five fixed-base Corporations(13). This restricts the choice between the following cities: Caltanissetta, Messina, Ragusa, Terranova, and Trapani. Before choosing Messina please read Rule 4.6.3.1.

3.3.4 - Corporation Starting example

In his / her turn of the third Stock Round of a four players game, player A, with L. 552 decides to start a Corporation. The Presidential Certificate of the C.T.L. is the next available Presidential Certificate, so he / she takes the C.T.L. Corporation Charter (with the eight Corporate Treasury Stock Certificates) and fixes the initial market value at L. 100 (with an initial market value fixed at L. 68 the Corporation would not receive enough money, and with an initial market value fixed at L. 144 player A could only hope to buy 30% of the Stock, thus lowering his / her incomes given by the dividends issued by the C.T.L.). Player A then buys 40% of the Stock (the maximum which can be bought in this phase), giving L. 400 to the C.T.L. Corporate Money. The Corporation now buys its three tokens from the Bank for L. 40, then puts one token in Marsala, while the remaining two are put into the tokens pool on the C.T.L. Corporation Charter. On his / her turn of the Stock Round, player A will buy another Stock Certificate of the C.T.L., which then will have L. 460 in Corporate Money.

3.4 - Stock Round Ending step

During this step the following activities are performed:

3.5 - Stock General Notes

3.5.1 - Stock Valuation and the Stock Market

All Stock transactions take place at the current market value indicated on the Stock Market Chart.

Stock valuation is changed as follows:

When a token is moved on the Stock Market Chart to indicate a change in a share's price and it enters a square already containing one or more tokens of other Corporations, the shifting token is always placed on the bottom, under any tokens already there.

The Bankers should ensure that the Stock Market Chart is kept up to date.

If the Stock Market Token enters the Corporation Closed section of the Stock Market Chart then the Corporation is removed from the game along with all its tokens (Port token included) and Certificates (Private Companies included). The Shareholders do not receive any compensation, and the corporate money is returned to the Bank (the Corporation is available for starting again from the next Stock Round). The Place Cards are rearranged so the Presidential Certificate of the closed Corporation becomes the last one available.

Number of
Players
Scenario 5Scenario 6
312-
4911
5-9

3.5.2 - Limit of Stock Holding

A player may never control more than 60% of a single Corporation.

If a player acquires more than the regulation number (because of losing a Presidency) the situation must be corrected in his / her next turn of the Stock Round.

The maximum number of Stock Certificates a player may hold altogether is given in the table on the right.

3.5.3 - Change of President

Old hands note: this rule works exactly like the 1830 one.
The original President will only retain control of the Corporation as long as another Stockholder does not exceed his / her Stockholding. Another Stockholder may gain control due to purchasing more Stock or because the President has sold Stock. Note there is no change of control just because another Stockholder's holding is equal to the President's.

When a change of control occurs there is an immediate exchange of Stock Certificates to enable the new President to hold the President's Certificate. This is a straightforward exchange, which permits both Stockholders to hold the same percentage of Stock as they did before the exchange took place.

Example: consider two players both holding 30% of the R.C.S. Corporation, with player #1 holding the President's Certificate. If player #2 bought a fourth 10% Certificate, a change of President would immediately take place as player #2's holdings now exceed the President's, 40% to 30%. Player #1 passes the President's Certificate to player #2 in exchange for two 10% Certificates, and passes the Corporation Charter with all its assets.

A player can relinquish his / her position as President in any situation where the necessary amount of Stock can be sold (i.e., no more than 50% of the total shares will appear in the Bank Pool), and provided there is another Stockholder holding at least two 10% (or one 20%) Certificates. He / she announces the sale of his / her Stock, exchanges Certificates with the new President, and then places the ordinary Certificates in the Bank Pool. A Presidency cannot be transferred in cases where there is no other Stockholder holding more than one 10% Certificate.

A President's Certificate may never appear in the Bank Pool. Thus, once a President's Certificate is obtained by any player, it will be held by one player for the rest of the game (exception: Rule 4.6.1). An exchange of Stock Certificates may well result in the out going President holding more Certificates than normally allowed. In such cases, the excess must be sold in the President's next Stock Selling step.

In most cases, the new President is simply the largest Stockholder. If several players have the same Stockholding after the former President has sold Stock (and they now each hold more than the former President) the office passes to the player who is next in line to the left of the old President.

3.5.4 - Double Last Certificate

The Last Certificate is treated in every way like a standard one, so it can never be swapped or traded for two single ones (or vice versa).

When a single and a double Certificate are both in the Bank Pool or in the Corporate Treasury the Last Certificate has always to be put at the bottom of the stack(15).

4 - Operating Round

At the beginning of each Operating Round each Private Company owner (either player or Corporation) receives the revenue for each Private Company owned from the Bank. Then every active Corporation operates.

During an Operating round each Corporation may:

The actions of the Corporations are directed by their respective Presidents and are operated according to the sequence discussed below. They will each have the opportunity to construct track, earn revenue, purchase trains, and perform financial activities. They may either distribute their earnings as dividends among the Shareholders (possibly raising their Stock value) or retain them to finance further Corporate activities (lowering their Stock value).

The Corporations take their turns in order, beginning with the one with the highest current market value. The Banker examines the Stock Market to determine which share has the highest value. This Corporation operates first, then the next highest value, and so on. When tokens are in the same space of the Stock Market, the Corporation whose token is on top operates first. When shares have the same value but in different columns, the Corporation whose token is furthest to the right operates first.

These activities must be carried out in the order given. Any that are optional may be skipped. In addition to these activities, a Corporation can buy from a player one or more Private Company at any time during its Operating Round, giving the money to the player.

Any purchase must be made with available funds. Credit is not allowed, even to the end of the same turn. For example, the money required to lay a tile in a mountain hexagon must be available in the Treasury. Revenues are not available until the Train Running substep, and thus cannot be spent on track construction until next turn.

During the later stages of the game the scope for corporate activities expands steadily because of the availability of larger trains that can travel a greater distance and thus earn more revenue per turn, and of more complex designs of track tiles that produce routes that are more elaborate and that also raise city revenue values.

The sequence of routines changes in the later stages of the game, when first two and then three Operating Rounds are performed between each Stock Round. All these changes are directly linked to the types of trains in use.

4.1 - Track Laying step

The game board features a hexagonal grid superimposed over a map of Sicily. The hexagonal tiles may be laid on this grid to construct railroad routes joining the various cities, towns and ports portrayed on the map. Areas of the map coloured grey depict already existing lengths of track. Tiles must not be laid on these grey areas. Hexagons coloured in yellow cannot be played on until green tiles are available.

Each Corporation that is operating may lay one tile during this step. At first, only yellow tiles are available and these may be placed only on light green areas of the board. The tile and position chosen must constitute an extension of a route already available to the Corporation building it. The new track must be connected ultimately to a city position occupied by a token of the Corporation. (In the case of tiles that portray two different pieces of track, it is only necessary for one of them to form a legal extension.)

There is only one exception to the rule requiring a tile placement to be an extension of an existing route: the hexagons containing the base tokens of a Corporation. If a hexagon is occupied by one of its tokens, the Corporation may place an appropriate yellow tile on it, regardless of connections.

A tile may not be placed so that:

 Narrow
Gauge
Standard
Gauge
PlainsL. 0L. 0
RoughL. 10L. 40
HillsL. 20L. 80
MountainsL. 40L. 160

It may be placed to utilise track on a grey hexagon, but this is not required.

A tile MAY be placed so that it terminates against a track of a different gauge, but no route can be traced between the two tiles.

Tiles may be laid on plain hexagons without charge but laying a tile on other kind of hexagons has a cost, which is depicted in the table on the right:

These charges are paid AGAIN if the tile is upgraded later in the game.

The standard gauge tile laying and replacing costs are halved if the Corporation currently owns the S.I.G.I. Private Company.

Tiles with both gauges represented are laid at narrow gauge rates only if ALL the NEW track is narrow gauge(16).

Type of
Station
Representation
on the Map
Representation
on the Tiles
TownOne black dotOne black cross-bar
CityOne circleOne circle /
two tangent circles

Tiles of the correct type must represent Cities portrayed on the board as reported on the table on the right.

Tiles representing towns or cities may not be placed on other locations.

Catania, Messina, Palermo, and Siracusa are special cases and will be dealt with separately.

When green tiles become available they may, in general, be used to replace yellow tiles that are already on the board. A replacement must maintain all existing tracks, alterations being additions to what was previously depicted. Similarly, when brown tiles become available, they may be used to replace green tiles. A list of all legal replacements is given in the appendices for reference.

A Corporation may only replace a tile if it can trace a legal train route of any length from one of its station markers to and along one of the NEW track segments on the new tile, or increase the value of a city it can run to on the new tile(17). This does not require that the route is actually in use, or even could be used with a train able to travel a sufficient distance, but it must not be closed to the Corporation.

Yellow and green tiles, which have been replaced, are available for re-use. Replacing a tile is an alternative to laying a new tile.

Certain green tiles are not used as replacements for yellow tiles, but are placed on specific yellow hexagons of the board. They are tiles that are specific to the positions of Catania, Messina, Palermo, or Siracusa and designated C, M, P, and S respectively.

tile656 These tiles may not be used on any other locations, nor may ordinary tiles be laid on these positions on the board. The orientation of these tiles is restricted by the rules requiring the maintenance of existing track.

Now look at the figure on the right:

4.2 - Token Laying step

Tokens designate priority railroad rights when placed on a city. They have two effects: When a Corporation starts, one token is placed on its base city. Base cities are pre-determined (see Rule 3.3).

A Corporation may place additional tokens from the Corporation Charter on any permitted location FOR NO COST(18). A permitted location is any city, which is connected by a legal route (however long) to a Railhead. Note there must be a vacant space to receive the token on the city concerned. Some city tiles have space for more than one token. In these cases, the city remains open to all until both spaces are occupied. Tokens may not be placed to block the base city of a Corporation that is not yet in operation. Two tokens of the same Corporation may never be placed on the same hexagon. A Corporation may place only one token during this step.

A Corporation may run routes into a city, which is occupied by other tokens, but such a city may only serve as a terminus; the route may not extend past the city. This restriction also applies to the placing of tokens themselves. A Corporation may not place a token on a city that can only be reached by passing through a city, which is entirely blocked by other Corporation's tokens.

The requirement for a legal route between the new token and a Railhead is waived if the Corporation owns the S.M.S. Private Company and the city is on the coast (every city, Caltanissetta and Ragusa excepted, is on the coast).

4.3 - Trains Running step

During this step, a Corporation can run its train(s) to make revenue. The President then chooses if the revenue is to be kept in the Corporation Treasury or to be distributed to the Shareholders. In the first case the Corporation's token on the Stock market is moved one column to the left; otherwise it is moved one column to the right if the revenue is GREATER OR EQUAL than the current market value of a Corporation's Certificate.

Example: the C.T.L. Corporation, with a current market value of L. 144, will have its token moved to the right only with a dividend greater than L. 144.

Wealth being the objective of the game, and Corporation revenue being one of the principal methods of gaining wealth, it follows that the planning of remunerative routes and the provision of trains to run them is of paramount significance to the strategy of this game.

4.3.1 - Routes Selecting substep

During this activity the President must select the route of each of his / her trains. A route is a length of track joining two or more cities, towns, or ports. It must be continuous and it must not involve reversing across junctions, changing track at crossovers, or travelling the same track section twice. A route that enters a station (a city or town) down one line may, however, leave along any other line, even of a different gauge. A route may begin or end at any station. The "arrows" at which track enters the ports may also form the start or finish of a route (or both if different ports are involved) but a port may not form part of the middle of a route (i.e., a train cannot run through a port). At no time may the same station be used twice.

When two or more routes are being run in the same turn by the same Corporation (i.e., two or more trains are operating) they must all be separate along their entire length, except that they may meet or cross at stations, or use two independent tracks on the same tile.

Every route used by a Corporation must include at least one city occupied by that Corporation's token. Initially, such a city is very likely to be the Corporation's base city, but as the game progresses, Corporations may operate from other cities that provide the base for routes that are more lucrative.

The large number on a train card indicates the length of route it may run in terms of the number of standard gauge hexagons involved. The starting hex does not count, while narrow gauge hexes count as two. Thus, a 4H Train may only pass through four hexes. Similarly, a 16H train may pass up through sixteen hexes. A train may be used on a shorter route than the maximum allowed if desired or when a maximum route does not exist. Note also that the arrow connection on the ports counts as a hexagon.

The R6H train counts as one the narrow gauge hexes, and the standard gauge hexes as two.

All trains count the double gauge hexes as one.

Gauges can be changed only at a station.

A route must include at least two cities or towns (ports do not count for this rule). A route can include any number of cities, towns and ports. A route must include at least one city (with the Corporation's token) and one city / town. This means that, for example, the R.C.S. cannot run a train from the city of Palermo to the port of Palermo.

Examples (see the map): during Phase Ten an 8H train belonging to the C.T.L. Corporation, given the situation in the map, could travel along the standard gauge line from the city of Palermo to Partinico (two hexes), Alcamo (three hexes), Castelvetrano (five hexes), Mazzara (seven hexes), and finally to Marsala, for a total of eight standard gauge hexes and L. 160 of revenue. Another 8H train could start from Palermo and travel to Partinico along the narrow gauge line (two hexes), and Marsala (through the narrow gauge line) for a total of eight hexes and L. 130 of revenue. Please note that the train cannot enter Marsala at standard gauge rate, even if Marsala is double gauge, because a train can change gauge only at a station. In a different situation, a R6H train could start from Palermo and proceed through the narrow gauge line to Partinico (one hex) and Marsala (four hexes), and then to Trapani (one double gauge hex) for a total of five hexes and L. 160 of revenue.

map

Moving a train from Palermo to Partinico (or viceversa) through the standard gauge line costs two hexes to a normal train, and four hexes to an R6H train, while moving a train between the same two cities through the narrow gauge line costs one hex to an R6H train, and two hexes to a normal train.

(Electric Dreams variant only)

E Trains have an unlimited movement capability on standard gauge lines, but can never run along narrow gauge lines.

4.3.2 - Revenue substep

All cities, towns, and ports on either the tiles or the board are marked with revenue values, which can vary from L. 10 to L. 130. The revenue, which is earned each time a train is run on the route, is the total of all the revenue values of the cities concerned.

Example: a train running a route through cities of 30, 20 and 20 revenue values would earn L. 70 revenue.

The highest legal revenue that can be demonstrated must be collected, although sharp-eyed players are not required to point out a higher possible revenue than claimed.

Three sets of revenue points are shown on the grey cities. The lower figure (in the white box) is used during Phases Four and Six, the middle figures (in the grey box) during Phases Eight and Ten, and the higher figures (in the black box) during Phases Twelve and Sixteen.

The President decides whether the revenue should be paid as dividends or diverted into the Corporate Treasury. If a dividend is paid, the total earnings from all the trains owned by the Corporation are paid out to the Stockholders (10% for each 10% Stock held). The Corporation receives the payment due any Stock in the Corporate Treasury, while nobody gets payments due any Stock in the Bank Pool(19).

Example: consider a Corporation where the President owns 50% of the Stock, 20% remains unsold in the Corporate Treasury and 30% is in the Bank Pool. If the Corporation's revenue is L. 50 and a dividend is declared, the player holding 50% receives L. 25, L. 10 goes into the Corporation's treasury, and the other L. 15 remains in the Bank.

If no dividend is paid, the entire earnings are passed to the Corporation. The Stock valuation is then adjusted on the Stock Market as per Rule 3.5.1.

(Electric Dreams variant only)

The revenue of major cities (Catania, Messina, Palermo, and Siracusa) is doubled when using an E Train.

4.4 - Token Acquiring step

(From Phase Six onwards - Advanced Game only)

In this step, a Corporation can buy the rights for a city from another Corporation, for at least L. 1, if a hypothetical train can travel between a railhead of the buying Corporation to the selected city. The acquiring Corporation's token is substituted for the other token, which is moved back to its Corporation's tokens pool. Base tokens cannot be bought from another Corporation.

PhaseFirst E
Token
Subsequent
E Tokens
12L. 1,100L. 800
16L. 800L. 550

4.5 - E Token Acquiring step

(From Phase Twelve onwards - Electric Dreams variant only)

During this step a Corporation can buy one E token, but only if:

The table above shows the costs of the First and Subsequent E Tokens depending on the Phase currently in effect.

A Corporation that possesses an E Token is allowed to buy E Trains up to the usual train limit.

E Tokens cannot be traded in any way between Corporations. The only way a Corporation can own an E Token is by purchasing one from the Bank.

4.6 - Train Acquiring step

A Corporation can buy one train (only) from the Bank (at face value) or from another Corporation (at any price, minimum L. 1). This step can be repeated several times, until the Corporation reaches the train limit. If a train bought from the Bank is the first of a new class, a new Game Phase begins immediately, with some alterations to the standard rules. Phase Four begins with the beginning of the game, Phase Six begins with the first 6H train sold, Phase Eight with the first 8H, Phase Ten with the first 10H, etc. The R6H trains are available for purchase after the first 16H train has been bought.

ClassNumber in
Scenario 5
Number in
Scenario 6
Cost
4H44L. 100
6H34L. 200
8H23L. 350
10H22L. 550
12H11L. 800
16H45L. 1,100
E(20)66L. 550
R6H22L. 350

Trains are bought from the Bank in order of increasing size. The smallest, the 4Hs, are bought first. When all these have been sold the 6Hs become available, then the 8Hs etc.

Here on the right you can see a complete list of the number of trains of each type.

Depending on the game Phase currently in effect, a Corporation may own a specified maximum number of trains.

A Corporation that finds itself with excess trains, must immediately return the surplus to the Bank. No payment is made for them, but they may be re-sold by the Bank as an alternative to whatever other trains are on offer (if they are of a type still in use). Re-sale is at face value.

Example: during Phase Eight of the game a Corporation owning two 8H trains may buy the first 10H train offered because prior to this sale the Corporation was allowed to hold three trains. Immediately after the purchase, however, the Corporation must return one of its trains to the Bank as it is now over the new train limit of two.

Example: during Phase Twelve of the game a Corporation owning two 8H trains may not buy the first 16H train offered because of the train limit of two, even if the beginning of Phase Sixteen would eliminate the 8H trains.

Trains may be purchased either from the Bank at face value or from another Corporation at any mutually agreed price. Whenever a Corporation purchases a train from another the transfer takes place in the purchaser's turn. Corporations may buy trains from each other for at least L. 1.

Any Corporation that is operating must have at least one train during its turn of an Operating Round unless there is no route available on which it could possibly run. Otherwise, a Corporation that begins its turn of an Operating Round without a train must purchase one during that turn.

4.6.1 - Emergency Money Raising substep

A Corporation must perform this substep if all the following apply: During this substep the President has to respond to the situation with his / her personal properties, at first by giving to the Corporation his / her Personal Money, then by selling if necessary his / her Stock Certificates and giving the money so earned to the Corporation. This sale cannot cause a Presidency shift of the currently operating Corporation.

The Corporation cannot sell any Stock Certificate from its Corporate Treasury during this substep.

If the money is not enough the Corporation has to declare bankruptcy and is removed from the game along with all its tokens (Port token included) and Certificates (Private Companies included). The Shareholders do not receive any compensation, and the corporate money is returned to the Bank (the Corporation is available for starting again from the next Stock Round). The Place Cards are rearranged so the Presidential Certificate of the closed Corporation becomes the last one available.

In case of bankruptcy, the unlucky President's properties are likely to be reduced to zero. In this case he / she can either leave the game (finishing with L. 0) or take a L. 500 loan from the Bank. In the latter case L. 750 will be subtracted from his / her properties during the Standings Round.

4.6.2 - Train Purchasing substep

During this substep, the money is paid to the Bank or to the selling Corporation, and the train is transferred to the Corporation's trains pool. A Corporation that has collected money through Rule 4.6.1 must buy the cheapest train available from the Bank (this could be a train previously discarded by another Corporation); it cannot buy a train from another Corporation.

(Electric Dreams variant only)

A Corporation can buy an E Train only if it currently possess an E Token.

4.6.3 - Game Phase Change step

This step is performed whenever the first train of a new type is bought, as some aspect of the game changes immediately.

The following table depicts all the game changes:

PhaseGame Start/468101216
TilesYellowYellow and GreenAll
Starting ValuesL. 68 and L. 100L. 68, L. 100 and L. 144All
Operating Rounds in each Game Turn(21)123
Eliminated train classNoneNone4H6HNone8H
Available train classes4H6H8H10H12H, E(22)16H, R6H(23)
Train limit for each Corporation432
Values scored for the grey citiesLowest
(white box)
Middle
(grey box)
Highest
(black box)
Private companies Can be brought(24) by Corporations  Eliminated 
Miscellanea    Messina Earthquake(25)Stock Market Tokens can advance in the Blue Zone

4.6.3.1 - Messina Earthquake

When the 12H train is bought by a Corporation, Messina is downgraded to yellow status, and all the tokens laid there are permanently lost (Messina can be upgraded again after the following Stock Round).

If the A.F.G. - Garibaldi Corporation chose Messina as its base station and the Corporation does not have another station marker on another city, the Corporation is removed from the game as per Rule 4.6.1.

4.6.3.2 - General Notes

At the beginning of Phases Eight and Ten the maximum number of trains allowed to a Corporation changes. A Corporation, which finds itself with excess trains, must immediately return the surplus to the Bank. The President chooses which train to discard. No payment is made for discarded trains but they may be re- sold by the Bank as an alternative to whatever other trains are on offer (if they are of a type still in use). Re-sale is at face value.

4.6.4 - Train Acquiring step ending

If the Corporation has not reached its train limit, wants to buy another train, and has enough money, then the Train Acquiring step can be repeated.

4.7 - Financial Activities step

The following activities have to be performed in the given order.

4.7.1 - Corporate Stock Selling substep

During this step, the Corporation can sell one or more of its Corporate Treasury Stock Certificate(s) at current market value.

In order to sell one or more Stock Certificates the Corporation has to perform the following activities:

Please note that:

4.7.2 - Corporate Stock Buying substep

During this step the Corporation, using its Corporate money, can buy back ONE of its Stock Certificates at current market value from the Bank Pool, giving the money to the Bank. This activity cannot be performed if the Corporation has sold some Stock during the previous substep.

4.7.3 - Bond Interests Payment substep

(From Phase Eight onwards - Advanced Game only)

If the Corporation has issued its Bond, it pays L. 50 to the Bank. If the Corporate Treasury does not contain enough money to cover this payment, an Emergency Money Raising has to be performed (see Rule 4.6.1).

4.7.4 - Bond Repayment substep

(From Phase Eight onwards - Advanced Game only)

If issued, the Corporation may repay its Bond, paying L. 500 from the Corporate Treasury to the Bank.

If the Corporate Treasury does not contain at least L. 500 (or if the Bond has not been issued) this step cannot be performed.

After repaying the Bond the Stock Market Token of the Corporation is moved one column right. The repaid Bond is put back on the Corporation Charter, from where it can be re-issued.

4.7.5 - Bond Issuing substep

(From Phase Eight onwards - Advanced Game only)

The Corporation can issue its Bond, receiving L. 500 from the Bank.

After issuing the Bond the Stock Market Token of the Corporation is moved one column left.

Issued Bonds are placed in the Bank Pool.

4.8 - Private Company Acquiring

(From Phase Six to Phase Ten)

A Corporation can buy from a player one or more Private Companies at any time during its Operating Round, giving the money to the player(26).

A Private Company cannot be traded once it belongs to a Corporation.

The trading price can be set anywhere between L. 1 and the double of the face value.

5 - Standings Round

The game can end in either of two ways, whichever happens first: when a Stock Market Token reaches the L. 377 value or when the Bank runs out of money.

If a Corporation's market value reaches L. 377 the game ends at the end of the Operating Round of the CURRENTLY OPERATING Corporation. Corporations that have not yet operated for this Operating Round lose their turns. If a Corporation's market value reaches L. 377 at the end of a Stock Round, the game still ends after the Operating Round of the first Corporation with a value of L. 377.

If the Bank runs out of money the game ends on the completion of the sequence of Operating Rounds that are currently in progress (i.e., at the point at which the next Stock Round would otherwise begin), unless a Corporation's market value first reaches L. 377, in which case the game ends after the Operating Round of the Corporation whose Stock is valued at L. 377. If the Bank is depleted during a Stock Round, the sequence of events must be played out to the end of the next series of Operating Rounds. For example, if the Bank runs out of money in a Stock Round, the Stock Round and the number of Operating Rounds which would normally take place must be completed before the game is ended. If the Bank runs out during the first Operating Round of three, complete this Operating Round and the two remaining. During this time all payouts that cannot be met from the Bank should be recorded on paper and added to the players' scores at the end of the game. If preferred, all players may be asked to contribute an equal sum of the Bank to allow normal payouts to continue.

When the game ends, the players determine their wealth by summing up the value of all their possessions (money and Corporation Stock). Corporate money and trains do not count, while L. 750 have to be subtracted for each loan obtained from the Bank as per Rule 4.5.1, down to a minimum final position of L. 0.

The wealthiest player wins.

(Advanced Game only)

If a Corporation has not repaid its Bond (if previously issued) the value of each of its 10% Shares is lowered by L. 100, down to a minimum of L. 0.

6 - Glossary

Bank Pool. The place where Certificates are held which a player or Corporation has sold during their respective Stock Selling steps. The Bank Pool can never contain more than half of the Stock of a Corporation.

Bond, Available. A Bond currently located on its Corporation Charter. An available Bond can be issued during the Operating Round / Bond Issuing Step by putting it in the Bank Pool and taking in exchange L. 500 into the Corporate Treasury.

Bond, Issued. A Bond currently located in the Bank Pool. An issued Bond can be repaid during the Operating Round / Bond Repaying Step by putting it on the Corporation Charter and giving in exchange L. 500 to the Bank. Issued Bonds subtract L. 100 from the value of each 10% Share at the end of the game.

Corporate money. All the money owned by a Corporation.

Corporate Stock. All the Stock Certificates owned by a Corporation.

Corporation Charter. The place where a Corporation keeps all its assets. The tokens, trains (when these have been acquired), Stock, and money in the Treasury are placed in the appropriate positions on the Corporation Charter. The tokens available and the number and type of trains owned must be clearly visible for inspection by other players. The money may be kept in a stack, but other players can verify the amount. It is very important that these funds be kept strictly separate from the player's own reserve of cash. Consequently, Corporate funds must always be held on the Corporation Charter.

Personal money. All the money owned by a player. Other players can freely verify the amount.

Personal Stock. All the Stock Certificates owned by a player.

Place Cards. Used during the game to indicate the order that the Corporations become available. Only the Presidential Certificate with the lowest Place Card may be purchased. The Place Card is removed once the associated Presidential Certificate has been purchased.

7 - Electric Dreams Variant

In the first years of the century, the Italian railway network, under direct government control as of 1905, began its transition from steam to electric power, beginning with the mountain lines of the northwest. This 1849 variant, which can be used only in the Advanced Game, allows you to explore the possibility of an earlier electrification of the Sicilian railway network.

Here are the new rules:


(1) The choice is between the Basic and the Advanced games. You cannot pick only some advanced rules.

(2) Old hands note: yes, the Corporations start in a fixed order, like in 1835. The order changes in every game, and as soon as the Presidential Certificate of a Corporation is bought, the following is immediately available.

(3) So each scenario 5 game will have one of six different sets of Corporations.

(4) Actually you have two "Bankers", so the most experienced player should do this activity.

(5) Old Hands note: this Private Company works exactly like the SVN&RR in 1830. Its practical effect will be to balance the game by slowing the development of the very strong Catania based Corporations.

(6) Old Hands note: this Private Company works almost exactly like the Great Lakes Shipping Company in 1856. The difference is that in 1856 the Port Token is eliminated at the beginning of phase 5, while here it is permanent.

(7) Old Hands note: this Private Company works exactly like the D&H in 1830, with the limit that the "teleport" must be done on a coastal city. Most cities on the map (the notable exceptions are Caltanissetta and Ragusa) are on the coast.

(8) Old Hands note: this works like the B&O in 1830.

(9) Old Hands note: in your turn you can first sell, then buy, unlike in 1830 where you can buy and sell in either order.

(10) So in the Stock Round in which it is started a Corporation cannot have its Stock sold. Please note that this applies even during the Financial step of the first Operating Round of the Corporation, when the Corporation cannot sell its own Stock because it has not yet finished a complete Operating Round.

(11) Old hands note: in 1849 there is not a par value like in 1830. All Stock transactions are always done at current market value.

(12) So if you sell a 20% Certificate the token is lowered two rows.

(13) This does not change in scenario 5, when if the Garibaldi is in play one of the fixed-base Corporation will not be in play. Even if a fixed-base Corporation is not in play its base cannot be chosen for the Garibaldi.

(14) This means that if a 20% Certificate is sold the token is moved two rows down.

(15) So you can never buy a Last Certificate if there is a Standard Certificate still available on the market. You can of course buy a "Last" from the Bank Pool if there is still a "Standard" on the Corporate Treasury, or vice-versa.

(16) So the substitution of a standard gauge yellow town hex with a mixed gauge green town hex has to be paid at narrow gauge rate, because all the new track on the new tile is at narrow gauge, while the substitution of a mixed gauge yellow city with a mixed gauge green city has to be paid at full cost, as at least part of the new track is at standard gauge. Brown double gauge tiles have always to be paid at full cost.

(17) Old Hands note: tiles upgrading works exactly like in 1870.

(18) The tokens are paid for during the Corporation Starting step.

(19) Old Hands note: this works like in 1870, and exactly in the opposite way as 1830 and 1856.

(20) Electric Dreams variant only.

(21) From the next Game Turn.

(22) E Tokens and E Trains are available after the sale of the 12H Train (Electric Dreams variant only).

(23) R6H Trains are available only after the sale of the first 16H Train.

(24) See Rule 4.8.

(25) See Rule 4.6.3.1.

(26) This transaction can be useful to the Corporation, to the player or to both depending on the trading price, the usefulness of the special feature of the Private Company for the Corporation and the general situation. Old Hands note: this rule works exactly like in 1830.


1849 - Appendices

1 - Tiles available

In the game are included 72 yellow tiles, 72 green tiles, and 24 brown tiles, for a total of 168 tiles.

1.1 - Yellow tiles

TileAvail.Green SubstitutionsMap Prerequisites
34680, 682, 684, 685, 701Town
44683, 687, 690, 691Town
7426, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 624Plains, rough, hills, mountains
81023, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 710, 711, 712Plains, rough, hills, mountains
9623, 24, 26, 27, 713, 714, 715Plains, rough, hills, mountains
584681, 686, 688, 700, 702, 703Town
734681, 684, 685, 687, 688, 700Town
743682, 686, 690, 691Town
774650, 692, 693, 694, 695, 708, 709, 710, 712, 713Plains, rough, hills, mountains
7810677, 678, 694, 695, 699, 708, 709, 710, 712, 713Plains, rough, hills, mountains
797677, 678, 692, 693, 711, 714, 715Plains, rough, hills, mountains
6442661, 663, 664, 665, 666, 668, 669, 671, 705, 706, 707City
6452660, 662, 664, 665, 668, 669, 670, 704, 705, 706City
6572662, 663, 666, 667, 670, 671, 704, 705, 706, 707City
6582661, 662, 664, 665, 667, 668, 669, 671, 704, 705City
6592661, 662, 664, 665, 667, 668, 669, 671, 704, 705City
6792680, 683, 689, 701, 702, 703Town

1.2 - Green tiles

TileAvail.Brown
Subst.
Yellow
Prereq.
233418, 9
243428, 9
252408
261427, 9
271417, 9
281397, 8
291397, 8
301427, 8
311417, 8
6241397
650164777
6511652Palermo
6531654Catania
6551656Messina
6601672645, 659
6611672644, 658
6621672645, 657, 658
6631672644, 657, 659
6641673644, 645, 658, 659
6651673644, 645, 658, 659
6661673644, 657, 659
6671673657, 658, 659
6681674644, 645, 658, 659
6691674644, 645, 658, 659
6701674645, 657, 658, 659
6711674644, 645, 657, 658
6751676Siracusa
677364878, 79
678364978, 79
68016973, 679
681169758, 73
TileAvail.Brown
Subst.
Yellow
Prereq.
68216973, 74
68316974, 679
68416983, 73
68516983, 73
686169858, 74
68716984, 73
688169658, 73
68916963, 679
69016964, 74
69116964, 74
692164977, 79
693164877, 79
694164777, 78
695164777, 78
699264678
700169758, 73
70116973, 679
702169858, 679
703169858, 679
7041674645, 657, 658, 659
7051674644, 645, 657, 658
7061673644, 645, 657
7071673644, 657, 659
708164977, 78
709164877, 78
7101None8, 78
7111None8, 79
7121None8, 78
7131None9, 78
7141None9, 79
7151None9, 79

1.3 - Brown tiles

TileAvail.Green Prereq.
39128, 29, 624
40125
41123, 27, 31
42124, 26, 30
6461650, 694, 695
6471699
6481677, 693, 709
6491678, 692, 708
6521651
TileAvail.Green Prereq.
6541653
6561655
6721660, 661, 662, 663
6732664, 665, 666, 667, 706, 707
6742668, 669, 670, 671, 704, 705
6761675
6963688, 689, 690, 691
6972680, 681, 682, 683, 700, 701
6982684, 685, 686, 687, 702, 703

1849 - Sequence of Play

Starting Round
  Seat Assignment
  Initial Money Assignment
  Corporation Sorting
  Private Companies Assignment
Stock Round
  Players' Stock Selling
  Players' Stock Buying
  Corporation Starting
  Stock Round Ending
Operating Round
  Private Companies' Revenue
  Track Laying
  Token Laying
  Trains Running
    Routes Selecting
    Revenue
  (Adv. Game only) Token Acquiring
  (El. Dreams Variant only) E Token Acquiring
  Train Acquiring
  Financial Activities
    Corporate Stock Selling
    Corporate Stock Buying
    (Adv. Game only) Bond Interests Payment
    (Adv. Game only) Bond Repayment
    (Adv. Game only) Bond Issuing
Standings Round

PhaseGame Start/468101216
TilesYellowYellow and GreenAll
Starting ValuesL. 68 and L. 100L. 68, L. 100 and L. 144All
Operating Rounds in each Game Turn123
Eliminated train classNoneNone4H6HNone8H
Available train classes4H6H8H10H12H, E16H, R6H
Train limit for each Corporation432
Values scored for the grey citiesLowest
(white box)
Middle
(grey box)
Highest
(black box)
Private companies Can be brought by Corporations  Eliminated 
Miscellanea    Messina EarthquakeStock Market Tokens can advance in the Blue Zone


Return to 1849 the Platform

This page is maintained by Chris Lawson (chris.lawson@virgin.net)
Last Updated 27th November 1998